AP Explica: sistemas de votación en EEUU son confiables

Ex-president Donald Trump and his allies have launched an incessant campaign of attacks against the voting teams since their defeat in the 2020 elections. After almost two years, no evidence has emerged that the voting machines were manipulated to steal the election. de que hubo un fraude generalizado.

However, conspiracy theories spread online and in forums throughout the country have undermined public confidence in voting machines and election results, or at the same time led some counties to consider disbanding the ballot paper team. marcadas y contadas a mano.

Las elecciones se han llevado a cabo en todo el país este año durante una temporada primaria muy atareada. Aunque los errores de programming ocurren a veces y el equipo puede fallar, no se han reportado problemas importantes. El equipo de votación es probod antes y después para identificar cualquier problema, mientras las auditidas realizedes después de la elección confirman que funcionó correctamente.

The Associated Press explains how we got to this point, the efforts to increase the security of the vote and the consequences of false affirmations around the 2020 presidential elections.


The types of voting equipment used throughout the United States vary depending on the location. For voting in person, most people fill the paper by hand and the paper is inserted into an electronic tabulator. En muchos casos esto sucede en el logar de votación. Elsewhere, the papers are collected in a safe voting box, with rules that govern the chain of custody, and taken to an electoral office for electronic tabulation.

In some places, voters use a specialized computer to mark their ballots electronically. The original papers are printed, then revised by the voter to ensure accuracy and then inserted into a tab in the voting area. Una demanda en Georgia is impugnando el uso de estas machines de “marcado de papeletas” because they use barcodes to register the votes.

The tabulators also count the papers sent by mail to a local electoral office. A small number of jurisdictions, most of them in small cities in New England, do not use tabulators and count only paper at hand.


Después del chaos de las papeletas mal perforadas de las elecciones de las 2000 (los llamados “hanging chads”), the Congress provided money to improve the voting system. Many jurisdictions opted for electronic voting machines to replace their perforated paper systems. Pero esas machines no producían un registro en papel: en su lugar, todos los votos fueron emítos y registrados electronicallymente.

Durante años, los expertos en seguridad electoral expresaron su concerno por estas machines de “registro directo” y la possibility de que alguien las manipulara. Un método más seguro, dicen, es un sistema que utilizare papeletas de papel y tabulación electrónica con revisiones y proveas posteriores a las elecciones para guarantar que las machines fielmente registraron las elecciones de los tantes.

During the last decade, the state and local governments began to replace their paper-backed machines, a process that accelerated after the 2016 elections and the revelations that Russia had scanned the voting systems of the United States in search of vulnerabilities. Currently, paper-backed machines are only used in Louisiana and a few jurisdictions in Indiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Texas, according to Voto Verificado, a group that tracks voting technology in the United States.


In the weeks after the 2020 elections, Trump and his allies made numerous unsubstantiated claims about the voting machines, including that the computer program was created in foreign countries and designed to change the votes for the desired candidates: un mando o cambiar un chip, puedes pressinar un button para Trump y va a Biden”, said Trump in his speech on December 2.

These affirmations are largely centered on Dominion Voting Systems, one of the few companies that dominate the voting technology market in the United States. In response, Dominion filed defamation lawsuits against conservative media companies and Trump’s lawyers, Sidney Powell and Rudy Giuliani, and said that “lies and misinformation have seriously damaged our company and diminished credibility in the elecciones estudiantes”.

Pero en lugar de disiparse, las conspiracies around the voting machines no han hecho más que crecer. Trump’s allies have traveled to the country to speak at conferences and with community groups armed with algorithms and graphics that pretend to show that the machines have been manipulated in some way.

Kevin Skoglund, an expert in electoral technology, said that part of the challenge is that voting systems are complex. Es comprensible que algunas personas hayan sido persuadidas de que sucedió algo nefasto cuando no fue así.

“Si eres una persona que es técnica, si alguien te dice que las machines te están engañando, podrías creerlo porque no entiendes cómo funcionan los sistemas,” said Skoglund.


Any device that functions with a computer program, a cell phone, a portable computer or a voting system is vulnerable to computer piracy. That’s why the electoral experts have pressed for the voting machines to be replaced without paper.

The experts say that the United States has taken measures to improve electoral security in the last years. This includes designating the voting systems of the United States as “critical infrastructure” in 2017 -a la par de los banks, dams and nuclear energy plants of the nation-.

The Congress has sent to the states almost 900 million dollars in electoral security funds, which are used to replace obsolete voting systems, hire cyber security personnel and reinforce cyber security defenses.

“There is no invulnerable system,” said Larry Norden, an electoral security expert at the Brennan Center for Justice. “Eso no significa que no podamos hacerlo mejor. Siempre debemos buscar cómo podemos hacerlo mejor, pero se puede eliminar el risego”.


Las affirmaciones falsas no sólo han undermined the public trust in the elections. They have also caused security breaches in some local electoral offices in Colorado, Georgia and Michigan.

Shortly after the 2020 elections, Trump’s allies took advantage of a programming error in a county in Michigan, or through the courts, they obtained legal access to their voting system. But a copy of the county election management system was available at an event in August 2021 organized by an ally of Trump, MyPillow executive director Mike Lindell, according to aides.

In this event, a copy of the system used in the county of Mesa, Colorado was also presented. Recently, details of another alleged violation emerged: in Coffee County, Georgia, when Trump’s allies were looking for ways to overturn the results of the presidential elections in January 2021. Michigan authorities are investigating after polling teams en un puñado de condados se pusieran a disposibilidad de personas no autorizadas.

Esos acontecimientos han generated preocupaciones de que trabajadores electorales dishonestes que simpatizan con las conspiracions podridány usar su acceso al equipo de votación y el conocimiento para lanzar un ataque desde el interior. An electoral worker in Michigan was recently accused of inserting a personal USB memory into an electronic voter register during the state’s primary elections, while authorities in Colorado are investigating a case in which a voter is suspected of tampering with a voting machine earlier. de este año.

Jen Easterlar, director of the United States Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), told reporters on October 3 that election security threats have never been more complex. citó la disinformación, amenazas internas y acoso a los trabajadores electorales-.


After the 2020 presidential election, a coalition of federal electoral and cyber security officials, along with state electoral officials and representatives of voting machine companies, issued a communique that they qualified as “the most secure in the history of United States”.

The group said that “no había evidenza de que ningun sistema de votación eliminar o perdiera votos, cambiara votos o se viera compromised de alguna manera”.

This was largely due to paper records available for approximately 93% of all votes cast and a system of post-electoral controls to test the precision of electronic tabulators. In Georgia, el voto presidencial se contó three veces -una de ellas completamento a mano- y cada conteo confirmed la victoria del presidente Biden en el estado.

“No importa lo que suceda en la máquina,” said Norden, del Centro Brennan. “Tenemos un papel que nos dice si los votos se registaron con precisión”.


El periodista de tecnologia de The Associated Press Frank Bajak, in Lima, Perú, contributed to this article.

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